During active labour,the uterus is divided into an active segment which contracts,to push the baby downwards, and a passive segment ,which relaxes and stretches, to create space for the baby to pass through.
Episiotomy can be avoided by 'birth canal widening' performed before the start of labour and achieving a 10 cm opening to the birth canal so the baby's head can pass through easily.
Spontaneous vaginal delivery is a natural process that usually does not require significant medical intervention. Lacerations (tearing of the tissues) can occur during spontaneous vaginal delivery and may require repair.
Labor will also vary from pregnancy to pregnancy in the same woman. During labor, the opening of the uterus opens (dilates) as a result of rhythmic tightening and relaxation of the uterine muscles.
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